Penard Labs

The Fascinating World of Amoebae
Imbricatea Cavalier-Smith 2012
Cells with secreted surface silicious scales.

1.0 Euglyphida Copeland 1956, emend. Cavalier-Smith 1997
Test of organic material; most taxa with secreted silica scales held together by an organic cement.

1.1. Trinematidae Hoogenraad & De Groot 1940, emend Adl et al. 2012
Test with bilateral symmetry; scales oval or round, sometimes of both types; specialized tooth-shaped scales around the aperture; aperture invaginated in some taxa.

1.1.1. Trinema Dujardin 1841
Test with large circular scales and smaller circular or ellipsoid scales; with tooth-shaped apertural scales.
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Trinema sp.

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Trinema sp.

1.2. Euglyphidae Wallich 1864, emend Lara et al. 2007
Thin, overlapping, elliptical scales; presence of specialized scales around the aperture with typical indentation.

1.2.1. Euglypha Dujardin 1841
Test elongate ovoid or pyriform; aperture with denticulate mouth pieces.
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Euglypha rotunda Wailes 1911

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Euglypha compressa Carter 1864

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Euglypha sp.

1.2.2. Pareuglypha Penard 1902 (incertae sedis)
Test ovoid, tapered towards a circular aperture. With a scaly spine of variable length.
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Pareuglypha reticulata Penard 1902

1.3. Cyphoderiidae de Saedeleer 1934
Scales circular, oval or kidney-shaped, juxtaposed or imbricated; test aperture angled, some with collar.

1.3.1. Cyphoderia Schlumberger 1845
Test retort-shaped; colorless to yellow; made up of a thin chitinous membrane, covered with discs or scales; aperture terminal, oblique, circular; body does not fill the test completely; nucleus large, posterior; pseudopodia, few, long filose, simple or branched; fresh water.
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Cyphoderia sp.

1.4. Sphenoderiidae Chatelain 2013
Self-secreted scales, circular or elliptical; aperture surrounded by small round or oval scales.

1.4.1. Sphenoderia Schlumberger 1845
Test clear, circular or ovoid, covered with overlapping elliptical or nearly circular scales. Aperture circular or a narrow, oval slit at the end of a broad, clear collar covered with numerous small plates. Nucleus spherical, with few small nucleoli.
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Sphenoderia lenta Schlumberger 1845

2.0. Placoperla Cavalier-Smith 2012
Imbricate cercozoa that secrete a test of mineralized spherical pearls or silicified plate scales that are typically double tiered with a perforate upper tier.

2.1. Thaumatomonadida Shirkina1987
Heterotrophic usually gliding cells that may swim also; with flattened cell body and with two heterodynamic cilia inserting subapically and/or ventrally; some unikont; with extrusomes; filopodia produced subapically or from ventral groove; cysts; multinucleate and multiciliate stages known.

2.1.1. Thaumatomonas de Saedeleer 1931
Bicilated, heterotrophic amoeboflagellates with silicious body scales.
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Thaumatomonas sp.

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Thaumatomonas sp.

2.2. Perlatia Cavalier-Smith 2012
Imbricate cercozoa that secrete a test of mineralized spherical pearls.

3.1.1. Perlofilida Cavalier-Smith 2012
Near-spherical heterotrophic and phagotrophic non-flagellate cells with uniformly extremely thin but stiff, symmetrically radiating, unbranched filopodia, cell surface covered with one or more layers of spherical siliceous pearls, bounded by a wall with numerous uniformly sized but irregular-shaped small holes. Pompholyxophryidae Page 1987 (incertae sedis) Pompholyxophrys Archer 1869
Spherical; outer mucilaginous envelope with minute colorless perforated siliceous pearls arranged in concentric layers.
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Pompholyxophrys punicea Archer 1869

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Pompholyxophrys stellata Nicholls and Dürrschmidt 1985

3.2. Placofila Cavalier-Smith 2012
Heterotroph cells with typically two-tier plate scales, with upper tier usually perforated; non-ciliated with slender radiating usually unbranched filopodia or biciliates with ventral groove emitting branched filopodia.

3.2.1. Pinaciophoridae Cavalier-Smith 2012
Non-ciliated heterotrophic uninucleate cells with extremely thin filopodia; tangential two-layered plate scales with numerous perforations in the inner layer. Pinaciophora Greeff 1869
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Pinaciophora fluviatilis Greeff 1869