Penard Labs

The Fascinating World of Amoebae
Imbricatea Cavalier-Smith 2012
Cells with secreted surface silicious scales.

1.0 Euglyphida Copeland 1956, emend. Cavalier-Smith 1997
Test of organic material; most taxa with secreted silica scales held together by an organic cement.

1.1. Euglyphidae Wallich 1864, emend Lara et al. 2007
Thin, overlapping, elliptical scales; presence of specialized scales around the aperture with typical indentation.

1.1.1. Euglypha Dujardin 1841
Test elongate ovoid or pyriform; aperture with denticulate mouth pieces.
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Euglypha rotunda Wailes 1911

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Euglypha compressa Carter 1864

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Euglypha sp.

1.2. Trinematidae Hoogenraad & De Groot 1940, emend Adl et al. 2012
Test with bilateral symmetry; scales oval or round, sometimes of both types; specialized tooth-shaped scales around the aperture; aperture invaginated in some taxa.

1.2.1. Trinema Dujardin 1841
Test with large circular scales and smaller circular or ellipsoid scales; with tooth-shaped apertural scales.
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Trinema sp.

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Trinema sp.

1.2.2. Corythion Taranek, 1918
Test with one type of scales: circular, rectangular, imbricated, irregularly distributed but at lateral margins in rows. Apertural plates with one central tooth.
Stacks Image 107894
Corythion sp.
The image shows cells of two different morphotypes. Reserach data suggests adaptive polymorphism as cells from the Arctic Peninsula show a southerly trend of decreasing average test size.

1.3. Cyphoderiidae de Saedeleer 1934
Scales circular, oval or kidney-shaped, juxtaposed or imbricated; test aperture angled, some with collar.

1.3.1. Cyphoderia Schlumberger 1845
Test retort-shaped; colorless to yellow; made up of a thin chitinous membrane, covered with discs or scales; aperture terminal, oblique, circular; body does not fill the test completely; nucleus large, posterior; pseudopodia, few, long filose, simple or branched; fresh water.
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Cyphoderia sp.

1.4. Sphenoderiidae Chatelain 2013
Self-secreted scales, circular or elliptical; aperture surrounded by small round or oval scales.

1.4.1. Sphenoderia Schlumberger 1845
Test clear, circular or ovoid, covered with overlapping elliptical or nearly circular scales. Aperture circular or a narrow, oval slit at the end of a broad, clear collar covered with numerous small plates. Nucleus spherical, with few small nucleoli.
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Sphenoderia lenta Schlumberger 1845

1.4. Paulinellidae De Sandeleer 1934

1.4.1. Paulinella Lauterborn 1895
Shell pyroid or broad-elliptical, not compressed, composed of siliceous, rectanguloid plates with slightly rounded, scarcely overlapping borders, arranged in circumferential longitudinal rows; in apertural view the plates form a counter-clockwise spiral, with one pentagonal scale at the aboral pole. Pseudostome small. Plasmabody with usually two sausage-like endosymbionts of cyanobacterial origin. Filopodia, usually fast moving.
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Paulinella chromatophora Lauterborn 1895

2.0. Placoperla Cavalier-Smith 2012
Imbricate cercozoa that secrete a test of mineralized spherical pearls or silicified plate scales that are typically double tiered with a perforate upper tier.

2.1. Thaumatomonadida Shirkina1987
Heterotrophic usually gliding cells that may swim also; with flattened cell body and with two heterodynamic cilia inserting subapically and/or ventrally; some unikont; with extrusomes; filopodia produced subapically or from ventral groove; cysts; multinucleate and multiciliate stages known.

2.1.1. Thaumatomonas de Saedeleer 1931
Bicilated, heterotrophic amoeboflagellates with silicious body scales.
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Thaumatomonas sp.

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Thaumatomonas sp.

Euglyphida genera incertae sedis

Pareuglypha Penard 1902 (incertae sedis)
Test ovoid, tapered towards a circular aperture. With a scaly spine of variable length.
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Pareuglypha reticulata Penard 1902